# permutation and combination problems with solutions

**permutation and combination problems with solutions**

**Question1**: How many different 4-letter words can be formed using the letters of the word

**CONSTITUTION**such it starts with C and ends with N?

Option 1 : 30

Option 2 : 33

Option 3 : 40

Option 4 : 24

Answer : B

**Explanation**: From

**the word CONSTITUTION**, the 4-letter word

C_ _ N has to be formed.

Leaving out these two letters, we have

2 O, 1 N, 1 S, 3 T, 2 I, 1 U

3 unique letters - N S U

3 duplicate letters - O T I

If our second letter is either of N,S or U

we have 5 choices for the third letter.

Eg: NS, NU, NO, NT, NI

If our second letter is either O, T or I

we have 6 choices for the third letter.

Eg: ON, OS, OU, OO, OT, OI

No. of ways

= (3*5)+(3*6)

= 33

**Question2**: What is the value of 1*1! + 2*2! + 3!*3! + ............ n*n! ?

Option 1 : n(n-1)(n-1)!

Option 2 : (n+1)!/(n(n-1))

Option 3 : (n+1)! - n!

Option 4 : (n + 1)! - 1!

Answer : D

**Explanation**: 1*1! = (2 -1)*1! = 2*1! - 1*1! = 2! - 1!

2*2! = (3-1)*2! = 3*2! - 1*2! = 3! - 2!

n*n! = (n+1 - 1)*n! = (n+1)(n!) - n! = (n+1)! - n!

1*1! + 2*2! +.......... n*n!

= 2! - 1! + 3! - 2! +.....+(n+1)! - n!

= (n+1)! - 1!

**Question 3**: How many 3 letter words, with or without meaning, can be formed using the letters of the

**English alphabet without repetition**such that the word begins with a vowel and ends with a consonant?

Option 1 : 50

Option 2 : 120

Option 3 : 504

Option 4 : 2520

Answer : D

**Explanation**: The first letter is one of the 5 vowels.

No. of ways

= 5

The last letter is one of the 21 consonants.

No. of ways

= 21

The middle letter is selected from the remaining 24 letters.

No. of ways

= 24

Total no. of ways

= 5*21*24

= 2520

**Question4**: From a group of 6 men and 8 women, six persons are to be selected to form a committee such that there are at least 2 men and 2

**women in the committee.**In how many ways can it be done?

Option 1 : 300

Option 2 : 1120

Option 3 : 1050

Option 4 : 2590

Answer : D

**Explanation**: The commitee can consist of

2 men, 4 women

3 men, 3 women

4 men, 2 women

No. of ways

= (6C2*8C4)+(6C3*8C3)+(6C4*8C2)

= (15*70)+(20*56)+(15*28)

= 1050+1120+420

= 2590

**Question5**: In how many ways can 5 letters be posted in 4

**postboxes**if each postbox can contain any number of letters?

Option 1 : 125

Option 2 : 625

Option 3 : 1024

Option 4 : 20

Answer : C

**Explanation**: No. of ways of posting the first letter in any of the 4 postboxes

= 4

Similarly, no. of ways of posting the second letter

= 4

No. of ways of posting the 5 letters

= 4*4*4*4*4

= 1024

**Question6**: Find the number of triangles in a heptagon.

Option 1 : 28

Option 2 : 35

Option 3 : 21

Option 4 : 14

Answer : B

**Explanation**: There are 7 vertices in a heptagon.

No. of ways of selecting 3 vertices out of 7

= 7C3

= 35

**Question7**: A

**committee consisting**of 3 men and 4 women is to be formed from a group of 7 men and 8 women. In how many ways can this be done?

Option 1 : 105

Option 2 : 2450

Option 3 : 700

Option 4 : 350

Answer : B

**Explanation**: No. of ways of selecting 3 men from 7

= 7C3

= 35

No. of ways of selecting 4 men from 8

= 8C4

= 70

Total no. of ways

= 35*70

= 2450

**Question8**: In how many ways can four cards of different suits having the same value be selected from a standard pack of cards?

Option 1 : 13

Option 2 : 52

Option 3 : 26

Option 4 : 169

Answer : A

**Explanation**: A card can take 13 distinct values.

Since all 4 cards have the same value, only the value has to be selected from the 13 values.

No. of ways of selecting 1 value from 13 values

= 13C1

= 13

**Question9**: In how many ways can you select four cards, each of a

**different suit**from a standard deck of cards?

Option 1 : 208

Option 2 : 520

Option 3 : 2197

Option 4 : 28561

Answer : D

**Explanation**: No. of ways of selecting a spade from 13 spades

= 13C1 = 13

No. of ways of selecting a clubs from 13 clubs

= 13

No. of ways of selecting a hearts from 13 hearts

= 13

No. of ways of selecting a diamond from 13 diamonds

= 13

Total no. of ways

= 13*13*13*13

= 28561

**Question10**: Find the number of possible ways in which 8 students can be divided into 4 equal teams to take part in an inter-

**school competition**.

Option 1 : 2520

Option 2 : 1260

Option 3 : 32

Option 4 : 49

Answer : A

**Explanation**: Each team consists of 2 students.

For the first team,

2 students are selected from 8 in

8C2 = 8*7/2 = 28 ways

For the second team,

2 are selected from the remaining 6 in

6C2 = 6*5/2 = 15 ways

For the third team,

2 are selected from the remaining 4 in

4C2 = 6 ways

The remaining 2 will belong to the fourth team.

Total no. of ways

= 28*15*6

= 2520

**Question11**: In how many ways can the letters of

**the word EDUCATE**be rearranged so that the two Es do not appear together?

Option 1 : 960

Option 2 : 1800

Option 3 : 720

Option 4 : 2520

Answer : B

**Explanation**: No. of ways of arrangin

**the letters of EDUCATE**(7 letters, 2 Es)

= 7!/2!

= 2520

If EE is taken as a single letter, there would be a total of 6 letters.

No. of ways in which E's appear together

= 6!

= 720

Required no. of ways

= 2520-720

= 1800

**Question12**: How many 3-letter words with or without meaning, can be formed out of the letters of

**the word SUCTION**if repetition of letters is not allowed?

Option 1 : 210

Option 2 : 840

Option 3 : 21

Option 4 : 140

Answer : A

**Explanation**: SUCTION contains 7 different letters.

No. of ways of arranging 3 letters out of 7 letters

= 7P3

= 7!/4!

= 210

**Question13**: A family of 10 people travel in two cars, of which one can seat 6 and the other only 5. In how many ways can they travel?

Option 1 : 252

Option 2 : 500

Option 3 : 462

Option 4 : 450

Answer : C

**Explanation**: They can travel in these ways.

6 people in the first car, 4 people in the second car

5 people in the two cars

Required no. of ways

= 10C6+10C5

= 210+252

= 462

**Question14**: 8

**friends go for a trip**in 2 cars. Each car can accomodate a maximum of 4 persons. In how many ways can they travel?

Option 1 : 160

Option 2 : 140

Option 3 : 168

Option 4 : 70

Answer : D

**Explanation**: Required no. of ways

= No. of ways of selecting 4 persons for the first car (since the remaining four will have to travel in the second car)

= 8C4

= 8!/(4!.4!)

= 70

**Question15**: In how many ways can 5 true or

**false questions**be answered incorrectly?

Option 1 : 10

Option 2 : 25

Option 3 : 31

Option 4 : 32

Answer : C

**Explanation**: 5 true or false questions can be answered in 2^5=32 ways.

Only one of these is correct.

No. of ways of answering incorrectly

= 31

**Question16**: Find the number of ways in which 11 players can be selected from 15 players if the

**captain and the vice-captain**are always selected.

Option 1 : 650

Option 2 : 715

Option 3 : 165

Option 4 : 117

Answer : B

**Explanation :**The captain and the vice-captain are always selected.

The rest of the 9 players are to be selected from the remaining 13.

No. of ways

= 13C9

= 13!/(9!*4!)

= 715

**Question17**: There are 8 seats in a

**railway compartment**- 4 seats facing the engine and the other 4 facing away from the engine. Of the 8 passengers, 3 prefer to face the engine, 3 prefer away and 2 have no preference. In how many ways can the passengers be arranged based on their preferences?

Option 1 : 1152

Option 2 : 576

Option 3 : 24

Option 4 : 2

Answer : A

**Explanation**: Of the 4 seats facing the engine,

3 are occupied by the persons who prefer it.

No. of ways of arranging 3 persons in 4 seats = 4!

Of the 4 seats facing away from the engine,

3 are occupied by the persons who prefer it.

No. of ways of arranging 4 persons in 3 seats= 4!

The rest 2 are occupied by the persons who have no preferences. It can be done in 2 ways.

Required no. of ways

= 2*4!*4!

= 1152

**Question18**: Find the number of diagonals in an octagon.

Option 1 : 8

Option 2 : 16

Option 3 : 28

Option 4 : 20

Answer : D

Explanation : An octagon has 8 vertices.

No. of ways of connecting 2 vertices

= 8C2

= 8*7/2

= 28

Subtracting the 8 sides,

the no. of diagonals = 28-8 = 20

No. of ways of connecting 2 vertices

= 8C2

= 8*7/2

= 28

Subtracting the 8 sides,

the no. of diagonals = 28-8 = 20

**Question19**: In a party, there are 50 people.

**Each person shakes their hand**with every other person. How many handshakes take place?

Option 1 : 1225

Option 2 : 2450

Option 3 : 100

Option 4 : 500

Answer : A

**Explanation**: No. of handshakes

= No. of ways of selecting 2 people out of 50

= 50C2

= 50*49/2

= 1225

**Question20**: How many 4-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 which are divisible by 5 and none of the digits is repeated?

Option 1 : 36

Option 2 : 25

Option 3 : 60

Option 4 : 120

Answer : C

**Explanation**: For the number to be divisible by 5, the last digit should be 5.

The first 3 digits can be one among 2,4,6,8 and 9.

Number of ways of arranging the first 3 digits

= 5P3

= 5!/2!

= 3*4*5

= 60

**Question21**: In how many different ways can the letters of

**the word DENIAL**be arranged in such a way that the vowels occupy only the even positions?

Option 1 : 720

Option 2 : 240

Option 3 : 36

Option 4 : 24

Answer : C

**Explanation**: The vowels E,I,A occupy only the even positions.

No. of ways of arranging the 3 vowels in the even positions

= 3!

No of ways of arranging the consonants in the odd positions

= 3!

Required no. of ways

= 3!*3!

= 36

**Question22**: You have displayed

**your five favourite novels**between the two ends of your book shelf. If you decide to arrange the five books in every possible combination and move just one book every minute, how long would it take you?

Option 1 : 24 minutes

Option 2 : 120 minutes

Option 3 : 10 minutes

Option 4 : 5 minutes

Answer : B

**Explanation**: No. of ways of arranging 5 books

= 5!

= 120

Time taken to arrange

= 120 minutes

**Question23**: A school has 10

**volleyball players**. A team of 5 members and a

**captain**has to be selected out of these 10

**players**. In how many different ways can the selection be done?

Option 1 : 210

Option 2 : 6!

Option 3 : 10C6 * 6!

Option 4 : 5040

Answer : A

**Explanation**: Out of the 10 players, 6 have to be selected.

Required no. of ways

= 10C6

= 210

**Question24**: A box contains 2 blue balls, 3 green balls and 4 red balls. In how many ways can 3 balls be drawn from the box, if at least one red ball is to be drawn?

Option 1 : 74

Option 2 : 72

Option 3 : 40

Option 4 : 30

Answer : A

**Explanation**: No. of ways of selecting atleast 1 red ball

= Selecting 3 R

+ Selecting 2 R and 1 B or G

+ 1 R and 2 B or G

Ways of selecting 3 Red balls

= 4C3

Ways of selecting 2R and 1 B or G

= 4C2*5C1

Ways of selecting 1R and 2 B or G

= 4C1*5C2

Required no. of ways

= 4C3 + (4C2*5C1) + (4C1*5C2)

= 4+30+40

= 74

**Question25**: In how many different ways can the letters of

**the word LITTLE**be arranged?

Option 1 : 360

Option 2 : 180

Option 3 : 720

Option 4 : 90

Answer : B

**Explanation**: The word LITTLE has 6 letters. (2L, 1I, 2T, 1E)

No. of ways

= 6!/(2!*1!*2!*1!)

= 180

**Question26**: There are 10 yes or no questions. In how many ways can these be

**answered**?

Option 1 : 1024

Option 2 : 256

Option 3 : 100

Option 4 : 20

Answer : A

Explanation : No. of ways of answering 1 question

= 2 (Y,N)

No. of ways of answering 2 question

= 2*2 (YY,YN,NY,NN)

No. of ways of answering 10 questions = 2^10 = 1024

= 2 (Y,N)

No. of ways of answering 2 question

= 2*2 (YY,YN,NY,NN)

No. of ways of answering 10 questions = 2^10 = 1024

**Question27**: In how many ways can the letters of

**the word POCKET**be arranged without changing the

**positions of the vowels**?

Option 1 : 720

Option 2 : 120

Option 3 : 60

Option 4 : 24

Answer : D

**Explanation**: Without changing the positions of the two vowels, only the four consonants P,C,K,T have to be rearranged.

No. of ways of arranging 4 letters

= 4!

= 24

**Question28**: In how many ways can

**the word APTITUDE**be arranged such that the vowels always come together?

Option 1 : 8!

Option 2 : 1440

Option 3 : 576

Option 4 : 120

Answer : B

**Explanation**: The word APTITUDE has 8 letters. (4 vowels, 2 Ts, 1 P and 1 D)

The 4 vowels (A,E,I,U) should always come together. They can be considered as a single letter. So the word can be considered as a 5-letter word.

No. of ways of arranging the 4 vowels

= 4! = 24

No. of ways of arranging a 5-letter word

= 5!

Since there are two Ts, no. of ways

= 5!/2!

= 60

No. of ways of arranging 'APTITUDE' so that vowels dont come together

= 60*24

= 1440

**Question29**: Out of 7 consonants and 4 vowels, how many words of 3

**consonants**and 2

**vowels**can be formed?

Option 1 : 210

Option 2 : 1050

Option 3 : 25200

Option 4 : 21400

Answer : C

**Explanation**: No. of ways of selecting 3 consonants(out of 7) and 2 vowels(out of 4)

= 7C3 * 4C2

= 35*6

= 210

There are 210 groups, each having 3 consonants and 2 vowels. Each group has 5 letters.

No. of ways of arranging those 5 letters

= 5!

= 120

Required no. of ways

= 210*120

= 25200

**Question30**: From a group

**consisting**of 8 boys and 5 girls, 6 persons are to be selected to form a team so that at least 3 boys are there in the team. In how many ways can this be done?

Option 1 : 768

Option 2 : 1568

Option 3 : 560

Option 4 : 1548

Answer : B

**Explanation**: The team can consist of

3 boys, 3 girls

4 boys, 2 girls

5 boys, 1 girl

6 boys

No. of ways

= (8C3*5C3)+ (8C4*5C2)+ (8C5*5C1)+ (8C6)

= (56*10)+(70*10)+(56*5)+28

= 1568

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